The R-77 is designed for beyond-visual-range air-to-air engagements, allowing fighter aircraft to engage targets at extended distances.

The missile is equipped with an active radar seeker, enabling it to autonomously track and engage targets without requiring constant guidance from the launching aircraft.

The R-77 features an agile airframe and control surfaces, allowing it to perform high-G maneuvers and engage maneuvering targets effectively.

The R-77 can be launched from various fighter aircraft, including the Sukhoi Su-27, Su-30, Su-35, MiG-29, and MiG-31, enhancing the air-to-air capability of Russian and other compatible aircraft.

The missile supports multiple engagement modes, including lock-on-after-launch (LOAL) and lock-on-before-launch (LOBL), providing flexibility in engagement tactics.

The R-77 has an operational range of up to 80 kilometers (50 miles), depending on launch altitude and speed, enabling it to engage targets at significant distances.

Upgraded variants of the R-77 feature improved guidance systems, such as enhanced target discrimination and resistance to countermeasures, improving overall performance.

The R-77 is compatible with modern fighter aircraft equipped with advanced avionics and radar systems, ensuring interoperability with contemporary aerial platforms.

The R-77 missile has been exported to several countries and is used by various air forces worldwide, contributing to their air-to-air combat capabilities.

The R-77 has seen combat deployment in various conflicts, including in Syria, where it has been used effectively in air-to-air engagements.